Paleobiotics are plant parts that, due to their physical and chemical structure, escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of humans. These nondigestible plant remains reach the colon where they are fermented by the residing intestinal flora and have been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and / or activity of health promoting bacteria that confer demonstrated benefits upon the host. Prehistoric populations that diversified their diet to include paleobiotics would have enjoyed a selective advantage over competitors.